Ten steps for writing a research paper Part 3

Step 7: Outline your paper

The final outline is similar to the working outline, but is more complex, with each topic being further divided into several subtopics.


Women’s role in Britain before WW2

  • Role in society
  • Beliefs about women’s place
  • Reasoning
  • Jobs women were allowed to do
  • Types of jobs
  • Statistics

Creation of Women’s Land Army

  • Why was it created? Background
  • Changing lives of the participants
  • Move from industrial to rural
  • Learned new skills

After World War 2

  • New opportunities
  • Changed overall make up of work force
  • Women without husbands
  • Many women lost their husbands during the war

Your final outline also should reflect the organizational format you have chosen for your paper. This will depend on the topic of your paper and your thesis statement.

Step 8: Write the Rough Draft

After you have completed your final outline, you can begin to write your rough draft. It is important to remember that this rough draft will be revised. Therefore, at this time, you do not need to worry too much about spelling or punctuation. Instead, you should concentrate on the content of the paper, following your outline and expanding the ideas in it with information from your notes.

Your paper should consist of three parts: the introduction, the body of the paper and the conclusion.

The introduction should state the thesis, summarize the main ideas of the paper and capture the reader’s interest.

The body of the paper should develop each section of the outline into separate paragraphs.

The conclusion should summarize your findings and restate the thesis.

Step 9: Edit Your Paper

When you have finished the rough draft, read through it again and revise it.

Pay particular attention to the content and organization of the paper:

Does each paragraph have a topic sentence that relates to the thesis? Is each idea supported by evidence?

Are there clear transitions from one section to another, from your words to quotations? Are there clear transitions to indicate to the reader when one idea is ending and another one is beginning?

Revision often requires many readings, each with its own purpose.

Step 10: Write the Final Draft

The final draft of your paper should be typed and must include citations and a bibliography; some paper might require a title page, depending on the formatting style.

The bibliography is simply a list of your sources in alphabetical order; use easybib.com MLA formatting to help. The OWL Purdue website is also helpful.

Before handing in your paper, be sure to proofread it for any mechanical errors.

Ten steps for writing a research paper Part 2

Step 4: Form a preliminary bibliography

A preliminary bibliography is a list of potential sources of information.

Evaluate the potential sources as you go along, keeping in mind how well they relate to your topic, how up-to-date they are and how available they are.

As you select articles and books, record your sources as you go. Using flash cards, Word, sticky notes, etc. is a good method. Later, when you format and complete your final bibliography, you will just arrange this information in alphabetical order.

Step 5: Prepare a Working Outline

This will help give order to your note taking.

Begin by listing the topics you want to discuss in your paper. (You should have a general idea of these from the reading you have already done.) Then, divide the items on the list into major topics and subtopics.


Thesis- “The Women’s Land Army in Britain further advanced women’s rights in Britain during World War 2 and beyond by expanding the role of women in the work place and teaching them skills they could use to lives independent of men.”

Working outline-

Women’s role in Britain before WW2

  • Role in society
  • Jobs women were allowed to do

Creation of Women’s Land Army

  • Reason
  • Changing lives of the participants

After World War 2

  • New opportunities
  • Women without husbands

Step 6: Start taking notes

After you have gathered your materials and prepare a working outline, you can start to take notes.

Notes should relate in some way to one of the topics on your working outline. Label each section with the appropriate topic; each should also include the title of the source of information. This is very important because you must cite all material even if you have not used the exact words of the text.

Be sure to write the note in your own words; use direct quotes only when the information is worded in a particularly unusual way.


Common errors that students make when composing thesis statements

There are several common errors that students make when composing thesis statements.

Some of these are listed below, with examples.

1. A thesis cannot be a fragment; it must be expressed in a sentence.

Poor: How life is in a racial ghetto.

Better: Residents of a racial ghetto tend to have a higher death rate, higher disease rates, and higher psychosis rates than do any other residents of American cities in general.

2. A thesis must not be in the form of a question. (Usually the answer to the question could be the thesis.)

Poor: Should eighteen-year-old males have the right to vote?

Better: Anyone who is old enough to fight in a war is old enough to vote.

3. A thesis must not contain phrases such as “I think.” (They merely weaken the statement.)

Poor: In my opinion most men wear beards because they are trying to find themselves.

Better: The current beard fad may be an attempt on the part of men to emphasize their male identity.

4. A thesis must not contain elements that are not clearly related.

Poor: All novelists seek the truth; therefore some novelists are good psychologists.

Better: In their attempt to probe human nature, many novelists appear to be good psychologists.

5. A thesis must not be expressed in vague language.

Poor: Bad things have resulted from religion being taught in the classroom.

Better: Religion as part of the school curriculum should be avoided because it is a highly personal and individual commitment.

6. A thesis must not be expressed in muddled or incoherent language.

Poor: In Act One of Othello, to cause them to feel fury against Othello, Iago fuels Brabantio, Othello, Roderigo, and Cassio with deceit by telling them lies.

Better: In Act One of Othello, Iago deceives several characters in order to further his plot to destroy Othello’s life.

7. A thesis should not be written in figurative language.

Poor: Religion is the phoenix bird of civilization.

Better: As long as man can conceive the idea of a god, religion will rise to give man a spiritual reason for existence.

Ten steps for writing a research paper

There are ten steps involved in writing a research paper:

Step 1: Select a subject

Step 2: Narrow the topic

Step 3: State the tentative thesis

Step 4: Form a preliminary bibliography

Step 5: Prepare a working outline

Step 6: Start taking notes

Step 7: Outline the paper

Step 8: Write a rough draft

Step 9: Edit your paper

Step 10: Write the final draft

Step 1: Select a subject

Choose your subject carefully. Think about the following: how much time you have, the length of the paper, and your intended audience.

Remember: The more specific, the better. Too general and you will find yourself with information overload and either a) an overly simplistic essay, or b) an impossibly long essay that you are unable to finish before the due date!

For example:

A general topic would be “Women during World War II”.

A more specific and manageable topic would be “Women’s Land Army in Britain during World War II”.

Writing the paper will be much easier if you will be able to later form an opinion or view point about your subject.

Step 2: Narrow the topic

The topic of the paper is what you want to say about the subject. To narrow the topic, you will need to do some background research. No need for detailed notes at this time, just jot down some big ideas you’re noticing.

Some questions to consider:

  • Who are the important people involved?
  • What are the major issues?
  • What are my opinions regarding the topic?
  • Why is this an important (controversial, interesting) subject?
  • How has the problem (or issue) developed? When? Where?

The answers will help you narrow your topic.


Women’s Land Army in Britain during World War 2.

  • Began in WWI to cope with 3 million men away to fight
  • Government wanted to increase amount of food grown in Britain
  • Many came from industrial cities and London
  • Lady Gertrude Denman

Topic- Women’s Land Army in Britain further advanced women’s rights in Britain after World War 2 because:                                                                (to be decided next!)

Step 3: State your thesis statement

Before you begin your research for your paper, you need to compose a thesis statement that describes the viewpoint you are going to express and support in your paper. Since your purpose in the rest of the paper is to prove the validity of your thesis, your thesis statement provides a controlling idea which will help you choose the resource materials you will use and will limit your note taking.


Thesis Statement- “The Women’s Land Army in Britain further advanced women’s rights in Britain during World War 2 and beyond by expanding the role of women in the work place and teaching them skills they could use to lives independent of men.”

Controlling idea- “Further advanced women’s rights”- the writer will look for material that describe women’s roles before, during, and after WW2; background of WLA, etc.

A Multi-genre Research Paper

As an alternative to the traditional research paper, consider the option of writing a multi-genre paper.  This type of writing is probably different from the kinds you have already done because you write on topics and create a project with a number of writing genres, not just one.  In other words, you don’t just write a research paper or a book report; instead you create a project using such genres as “diaries, reports, sermons, letters, plays, poems, and ethnographic field notes” as described by Robert Davis et al. in the Fall 1998 Oregon English Journal .

Some of you may have written creative non-fiction pieces that contained “meanders” to other forms of writing as described by Mary Paumier Jones in her essay “Meander” (Creative Nonfiction 1 1993)

Multi-genre writing gives you wide latitude for you to pick your forms of exploration of topics, as with your meanders.

Davis et al. gives us a rationale of why this type of writing is important.  He writes, “We live on a multi-world: multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi-media, multi educational.  Every day, we are bombarded with a multitude of messages, from a multitude of sources.  A multi-genre research paper lends itself to the real world, and how we  receive information.  We see it on the news, in movies, in music videos, on the Internet; we hear it on the radio, in the halls, the classroom, church, car, locker room, on the phone; and we read it in books, magazines, textbooks, letters, advertisements, newspapers, and e-mail.”  Doesn’t it make sense to draw on the communication types around us to understand our world?

Another way of looking at how we can go about writing in this new approach is described by Tom Lovell of Pendleton High School in Pendleton Oregon who writes,

“A multi-genre research paper is a reflection of the times we live in.  Instead of writing one paper in one genre based on one source, this paper uses a variety of informational sources and incorporates those genres, possibly mimicking or adapting those sources, into a paper.  The multi-genre research paper takes information from multiple sources and presents it in multiple ways.” 

By using this approach, you have freedom in choosing your genres.  While it may be comfortable to stick with the familiar, here is an opportunity to venture into new forms you haven’t dabbled in much before.  Consider how writing a scene from a play is less formidable if it is just one part of a larger group which gets across your ideas about a subject.

What will a multi-genre research paper look like? 

Unlike the traditional research paper which uses only scholarly sources from other writers and researchers, you can pull from a variety of writing.  For example, in a multi-genre research paper on the effects of adoption on children, you can use statistics from the state in which you live and  scholarly journals such as found online in EBSCO and in research libraries, and then expand from such traditional sources to letters from adopted children, transcripts of interviews with parents and children, applications for adoption, diaries of parents traveling to China to adopt, ads from adoption agencies, letters to and from parents and children, court cases of adoption procedures, newspaper articles on families cited for neglect of adopted children, memoirs of adoptees, psychological profiles of children during the first year, and  scenes from screen plays in which adoption is a central theme. The successful multi-genre research paper will be exciting to read and less formulaic than the typical research paper.  The main thesis will be backed by a variety of sources. Of course, the works consulted page will include selections considered but not used in the draft and will provide a broad roadmap of the journey you traveled in looking for material.

Here are some lists of genres from which to choose, thanks to Davis et al. 

Check with your instructor for specifics types to include. You may want to search for “poems, letter, diary/journal entry, advertisement, map, short scene from a play, epithet, obituary, sketch, collage, chart or diagram with explanation, vocabulary page, cartoon, playbill, certificate, historical piece, futuristic piece, comparison/contrast piece, biographical piece, tall tale, myth, jokes, character analysis, personal reaction/ critique.”


College and Career Research Paper Requirements

The objectives of this research paper are to focus on your career aspirations as well as demonstrate research and proper documentation skills. To accomplish this you will need to meet set deadlines, participate in the library research sessions and compose a research paper written to the specifications of the assignment.

I. Content – Your paper must include information on the following:
A. Three education/training requirements – a.k.a. colleges, trade or tech. programs, military, etc)
1. These can be safety, target and reach schools or just options for your post-secondary goals
2. Be specific in research parer, include details like the following:
a. tuition, enrollment, majors offered, job placement, scholarships, financial aid, athletic/extracurricular, etc.
b. for trade or military – look at qualifications needed, programs offered, cost, skills you will gain/certifications, goals of the program/branch of the military, and the “end game” of the program
B. Job requirements
1. skills
2. working conditions
C. Projected/Average Compensation
1. salary estimates
2. benefits (standard as well as “perks”)
D. Job Availability
1. Placement
2. Future –meaning advancement opportunities and longevity of career
E. Length
1. 4-6 pages, typed, double spaced
2. MUST HAVE internal citations
3. 3 sources minimum

Customer Needs – How Do Businesses Identify Them?

What does “customer needs” actually mean? On a subconscious level, all customers feel the need to be listened to, to be understood, made to feel comfortable and to feel welcome. But these are basic needs that won’t compel the customer to buy. They are, however, base level needs which must to be met in addition to the need to have a problem solved.

Base level, or sub-conscious, customer needs can be met by:

  1. Good customer service standards – This involves a superior level of customer interaction pre-purchase as well as post-purchase.
  2. Positive and targeted marketing messages – Spamming and broad capture marketing messages can make potential customers feel like they are not important or not understood.

It’s important that all businesses address the base level needs in addition to the conscious level need.

 Btw, I recommend professional writing services, here you can find really quality essay writers.

On a conscious level, customer needs are related to a problem that will be solved by making a purchase. Many businesses only guess at what their target customer needs are. Some get lucky and guess correctly, while other businesses languish because they have guessed incorrectly. Taking the time to correctly identify customer needs gives businesses a competitive edge. This competitive edge will attract and retain customers, persuade your customers to shop with you more (ie. repeat customers), and to increase the amount that they spend.

So how do you identify customer needs?

There are broadly two sources of information used to assess customer needs. One is conducting primary research, and the second is using secondary research. Primary research tends to be costly and therefore is mainly the domain of larger companies with a fair marketing budget.

Primary research is the process of gathering original information directly for your purpose. It consists of one or more of the following:

    • Conducting surveys, through emails, door to door or telephone
    • Using focus groups.
    • Conducting interviews with people who fit the demographic of a business’s’ target customer base
    • Gathering information directly by observing behavior.
  • Secondary research is the process of using published information, or data gathered by another party, to assess customer needs through market research. The sources of this information can be:
      • Local government (council) reports, statistics and business directories
      • Industry bodies such as trade associations and chambers of commerce
      • Free research on the internet
      • Public libraries

Thoughts of essay writers: “My personal philisophy”

My Personal Philosopy My Personal Philosophy A teacher’s personal philosophy of education is a critical element in his or her approach to guiding children along the path of enlightenment. ~ Barbara Wilt Opportunity abounds for elementary education in the twenty-first century, given the multitude of academic theorists who pioneered a number of indispensable approaches. The extent to which elementary education must be tailored to a combination of one’s cultural and social environment is both grand and far-reaching; that no single teaching method can purport to reach each and every child speaks to the need for incorporating the benefits of more than one approach in any given classroom environment. My lifelong desire is to teach all levels at some point in my career.

Read about: Distance Learning Business Degree A Step Towards Success.

To me, teaching has no age limits, as we all need to learn and grow. In the beginning I would always focus on early childhood education because I felt that this stage in life was the most important due to the developing growth of the brain. But this course has definitely given me a better outlook on education in its entirety. To better understand one’s philosophy of education, one must first understand the meaning of philosophy itself. Philosophy is the “love of wisdom and the search for it” . I adapted to my personal philosophy by recognizing educational principles that rests upon the learner, the school, and myself as the teacher. In this essay I will explain the purpose of education, examine the educational philosophy that matches my belief, show the roles of the student as well as the teacher, and discuss my ideal curriculum.

Education is a means of reaching out to individuals and instilling them with the love of learning. It is striving to delight excitement in the minds of students, by making their learning experience both fun and engaging. This enthusiasm about learning will drive students to develop an intellectual curiosity and to become lifelong learners. I truly believe that the overall purpose of education is to create productive and balanced members of society. Education consists of acquiring knowledge, learning skills and imparting culture through socialization.

Essay by writer: “Distance Learning Business Degree A Step Towards Success”

Many essay writers believe they are stuck in a dead-end job, unable to advance due to a lack of a formal education. Working over 40 hours a week and the financial responsibilities of raising a family hinders their ability to attend college. Many are finding a distance learning business degree can help them achieve better success.

There are many programs that offer a distance learning business degree that offer financial aid to those who qualify. A reputable online college, accredited by the regional accrediting agencies covering the state in which it is located, usually has the same resources as a traditional institution of higher education.

Programs are designed  by essay writers to help those non-traditional students, as well as those who cannot find the time to attend classroom studies. Most offer the same classes as a traditional school and offer interaction with essay writers while pursuing a distance learning business degree. The major advantages include working at your own pace, maintaining your current employment, and still having time for your family while working towards a distance learning business degree.

Classroom Tools Part Of Tuition Cost

Taking classes for a distance learning business degree often requires the use of classroom tools. Most accredited schools will offer these tools as part of your classes and the cost is included in the tuition. Others may have you purchase them locally, but either way you will need them to complete your distance learning business degree.

Essay writers think that some people also have a desire to operate their own business and there are many business-related skills they may lack. Certain skills may also be necessary to obtain backing for the new venture that can be obtained by earning a distance learning business degree. Many investors are shy about investing in a business being operated by a person without the necessary skills. Although they may be exceptional at what they do, without the business acumen to take care of the business end, many are reluctant to invest.

Additionally, by earning a distance learning business degree the owner/operator of a business may find additional ways to help their business grow in ways in which they were previously unfamiliar.

Persons attending distance learning business degree programs must have the personal drive and self-discipline to succeed. You are the only one responsible for your success in completing the classes as there will be no one looking over your shoulder to insure you complete assignments honestly.